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How phloem-feeding insects face the challenge of phloem-located defenses

Will, Torsten ; Furch, Alexandra C. U. ; Zimmermann, Matthias R.


Originalveröffentlichung: (2013) Frontiers in Plant Science 4:336 doi:10.3389/fpls.2013.00336
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URN: urn:nbn:de:hebis:26-opus-104244
URL: http://geb.uni-giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2013/10424/

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Freie Schlagwörter (Englisch): aphid-plant interactions , aphid saliva , P-proteins , plant defense , phloem , sieve element occlusion
Sammlung: Open Access - Publikationsfonds
Universität Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
Fachgebiet: Agrarwissenschaften und Umweltmanagement
DDC-Sachgruppe: Landwirtschaft
Dokumentart: Aufsatz
Sprache: Deutsch
Erstellungsjahr: 2013
Publikationsdatum: 06.12.2013
Kurzfassung auf Englisch: Due to the high content of nutrient, sieve tubes are a primary target for pests, e.g., most
phytophagous hemipteran. To protect the integrity of the sieve tubes as well as their content,
plants possess diverse chemical and physical defense mechanisms. The latter mechanisms are
important because they can potentially interfere with the food source accession of phloem-feeding
insects. Physical defense mechanisms are based on callose as well as on proteins and often plug the
sieve tube. Insects that feed from sieve tubes are potentially able to overwhelm these defense
mechanisms using their saliva. Gel saliva forms a sheath in the apoplast around the stylet and is
suggested to seal the stylet penetration site in the cell plasma membrane. In addition, watery
saliva is secreted into penetrated cells including sieve elements; the presence of specific
enzymes/effectors in this saliva is thought to interfere with plant defense responses. Here we
detail several aspects of plant defense and discuss the interaction of plants and phloem-feeding
insects.
Recent agro-biotechnological phloem-located aphid control strategies are presented.
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