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Motor skill learning, retention, and control deficits in Parkinson´s disease

Pendt, Lisa Katharina ; Reuter, Iris ; Müller, Hermann


Originalveröffentlichung: (2011) PLoS ONE, 6(7): e21669 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021669
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URN: urn:nbn:de:hebis:26-opus-82536
URL: http://geb.uni-giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2011/8253/

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Freie Schlagwörter (Englisch): motor skills , learning , retention , control deficits , parkinson´s disease
Sammlung: Open Access - Publikationsfonds
Universität Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
Institut: Department of Psychology and Sport Science; Department of Neurology
Fachgebiet: Universität, Präsident der JLU
DDC-Sachgruppe: Medizin
Dokumentart: Aufsatz
Sprache: Englisch
Erstellungsjahr: 2011
Publikationsdatum: 15.07.2011
Kurzfassung auf Englisch: Parkinson´s disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson´s disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients´ performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson´s disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance.
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