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Endothelial Mesenchymal Transition in Hypoxic Microvascular Endothelial Cells and Paracrine Induction of Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis Are Mediated via TGFbeta1/SMAD Signaling

Sniegon, Isabella ; Prie├č, Mona ; Heger, Jacqueline ; Schulz, Rainer ; Euler, Gerhild


Originalveröffentlichung: (2017) International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18(11):2290 doi: 10.3390/ijms18112290
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URN: urn:nbn:de:hebis:26-opus-157366
URL: http://geb.uni-giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2020/15736/


Freie Schlagwörter (Englisch): fibrosis , TGFbeta , ischemia , cardiac remodeling , endothelial cells
Sammlung: Open Access - Publikationsfonds
Universität Justus-Liebig-Universit├Ąt Gie├čen
Institut: Institute of Physiology
Fachgebiet: Medizin
DDC-Sachgruppe: Medizin
Dokumentart: Aufsatz
Sprache: Englisch
Erstellungsjahr: 2017
Publikationsdatum: 01.12.2020
Kurzfassung auf Englisch: Cardiac remodeling plays a crucial role in the development of heart failure after mycocardial infarction. Besides cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells are recognized to contribute to cardiac remodeling. We now investigated processes of endothelial mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) in microvascular endothelial cells of rat (MVEC) under hypoxia and paracrine effects on ventricular cardiomyocytes of adult rat. Exposure of MVECs to hypoxia/reoxygenation enhanced TGFbeta/SMAD signaling, since phosphorylation, and thus activation, of SMAD1/5 and SMAD2 increased. This increase was blocked by inhibitors of TGFbeta receptor types ALK1 or ALK5. Exposure of ventricular cardiomyocytes to conditioned medium from hypoxic/reoxygenated MVECs enhanced SMAD2 phosphorylation and provoked apoptosis in cardiomyoyctes. Both were blocked by ALK5 inhibition. To analyze autocrine effects of hypoxic TGFbeta signaling we investigated EndoMT in MVECs. After 3 days of hypoxia the mesenchymal marker protein alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), and the number of alpha-SMA- and fibroblast specific protein 1 (FSP1)-positive cells increased in MVECs cultures. This was blocked by ALK5 inhibition. Similarly, TGFbeta(1) provoked enhanced expression of alpha-SMA and FSP1 in MVECs. In conclusion, hypoxia provokes EndoMT in MVECs via TGFbeta(1)/SMAD2 signaling. Furthermore, release of TGFbeta(1) from MVECs acts in a paracrine loop on cardiomyocytes and provokes apoptotic death. Thus, in myocardial infarction hypoxic endothelial cells may contribute to cardiac remodeling and heart failure progression by promotion of cardiac fibrosis and cardiomyocytes death.
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